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HTML Special characters



Sometimes, when you write an HTML page, you will want to use characters not available in your keyboard, like ™ or ® or © or ¾, etc. These are called special characters. To display special characters in the body of a web page, you need to enter special codes. All the special character codes begin with an ampersand sign (&) and end with a semicolon (;)

e.g.
To display a ® symbol, just type ® inside your code.
To display a € symbol, you have to type €.

Following is a table with the special characters available in HTML:


GlyphCodeDescription
(Space)
 
non-breaking space
“
left double curly quote
”
right double curly quote
‘
left single curly quote
’
right single curly quote
‹
single left angle quote
›
single right angle quote
«
«
double left angle quotes
»
»
double right angle quotes
GlyphCodeDescription
×
×
multiplication
÷
÷
division
±
±
plus/minus
>
>
greater than
<
&lt;
less than
&nt;
not equal
&asymp;
almost equal
&there4;
therefore
ƒ
&fnof;
function
¬
&not;
not sign
º
&ordm;
masculine ordinal
ª
&ordf;
feminine ordinal
¼
&frac14;
one-fourth
½
&frac12;
one-half
¾
&frac34;
three-fourths
¹
&sup1;
superscript one
²
&sup2;
superscript two
³
&sup3;
superscript three
µ
&micro;
micron
&permil;
per mill sign
GlyphCodeDescription
&
&amp;
ampersand
&ndash;
en dash
&mdash;
em dash
¡
&iexcl;
inverted exclamation
¿
&iquest;
inverted question mark
&para;
paragraph sign
¦
&#166;
broken vertical bar
°
&deg;
degree sign
·
&middot;
middle dot
&bull;
bullet
¤
&curren;
general currency sign
¢
&cent;
cent
&euro;
Euro
£
&pound;
British Pound Sterling
¥
&yen;
Japanese Yen
§
&sect;
section
©
&copy;
copyright
®
&reg;
registered
&trade;
trademark
&larr;
leftward arrow
&uarr;
upward arrow
&rarr;
rightward arrow
&darr;
downward arrow
&spades;
spade suit
&clubs;
club suit
&hearts;
heart suit
&diams;
diamond suit
&oline;
overscore
&dagger;
dagger
&Dagger;
double dagger
GlyphCodeDescription
á
&aacute;
lower-case "a" with acute accent
Á
&Aacute;
upper-case "A" with acute accent
à
&agrave;
lower-case "a" with grave accent
À
&Agrave;
upper-case "A" with grave accent
â
&acirc;
lower-case "a" with circumflex
Â
&Acirc;
upper-case "A" with circumflex
å
&aring;
lower-case "a" with ring
Å
&Aring;
upper-case "A" with ring
ã
&atilde;
lower-case "a" with tilde
Ã
&Atilde;
upper-case "A" with tilde
ä
&auml;
lower-case "a" with dieresis
Ä
&Auml;
upper-case "A" with dieresis
æ
&aelig;
lower-case "ae" ligature
Æ
&AElig;
upper-case "AE" ligature
ç
&ccedil;
lower-case "c" with cedilla
Ç
&Ccedil;
upper-case "C" with cedilla
é
&eacute;
lower-case "e" with acute accent
É
&Eacute;
upper-case "E" with acute accent
è
&egrave;
lower-case "e" with grave accent
È
&Egrave;
upper-case "E" with grave accent
ê
&ecirc;
lower-case "e" with circumflex
Ê
&Ecirc;
upper-case "E" with circumflex
ë
&euml;
lower-case "e" with dieresis
Ë
&Euml;
upper-case "E" with dieresis
í
&iacute;
lower-case "i" with acute accent
Í
&Iacute;
upper-case "I" with acute accent
ì
&igrave;
lower-case "i" with grave accent
Ì
&Igrave;
upper-case "I" with grave accent
î
&icirc;
lower-case "i" with circumflex
Î
&Icirc;
upper-case "I" with circumflex
ï
&iuml;
lower-case "i" with dieresis
Ï
&Iuml;
upper-case "I" with dieresis
ñ
&ntilde;
lower-case "n" with tilde
Ñ
&Ntilde;
upper-case "N" with tilde
ó
&oacute;
lower-case "o" with acute accent
Ó
&Oacute;
upper-case "O" with acute accent
ò
&ograve;
lower-case "o" with grave accent
Ò
&Ograve;
upper-case "O" with grave accent
ô
&ocirc;
lower-case "o" with circumflex
Ô
&Ocirc;
upper-case "O" with circumflex
ø
&oslash;
lower-case "o" with slash
Ø
&Oslash;
upper-case "O" with slash
õ
&otilde;
lower-case "o" with tilde
Õ
&Otilde;
upper-case "O" with tilde
ö
&ouml;
lower-case "o" with dieresis
Ö
&Ouml;
upper-case "O" with dieresis
ß
&szlig;
ess-tsett
ú
&uacute;
lower-case "u" with acute accent
Ú
&Uacute;
upper-case "U" with acute accent
ù
&ugrave;
lower-case "u" with grave accent
Ù
&Ugrave;
upper-case "U" with grave accent
û
&ucirc;
lower-case "u" with circumflex
Û
&Ucirc;
upper-case "U" with circumflex
ü
&uuml;
lower-case "u" with dieresis
Ü
&Uuml;
upper-case "U" with dieresis
ÿ
&yuml;
lower-case "y" with dieresis
Ÿ
&Yuml;
lower-case "y" with dieresis
  1. Create a new .html file and name it special_characters.html. Write:
    <h1>Special characters test</h1>
     
    <p>&frac12; &times; &frac12; = &frac14;</p>
    <p>&ldquo;This is great!&rdquo;</p>
    <p>I wish I had &euro; 1,000,000</p>
  2. Test your new document.

In the next tutorial, we will learn how to create and control links in HTML.

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